Effects of Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in Combination with Lactic Acid Bacteria on Intestinal Oxidative Stress Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion in Mouse.
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Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in oxidative stress, inflammation, and tissue injuries. The present study investigates the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of a dietary supplement of bilberry, either alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum RESO56, L. plantarum HEAL19, or Pediococcus acidilactici JAM046, in an I/R-induced model for oxidative stress in mice. A bilberry diet without addition of bacteria significantly decreased both lipid peroxidation (p = 0.001) and mucosal injury in the ileum. Of 14 anthocyanins identified in bilberry, anthocyanin arabinosides were the most resistant to absorption and microbial degradation in the intestines. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and delphinidin-3-glucoside seemed to be mostly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine, while malvidin-3-galactoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-galactoside, and petunidin-3-galactoside seemed to be digested by the microbiota in the cecum. Bilberry strongly influenced the composition of the cecal microbiota. In conclusion, a food supplement of bilberry protected small intestine against oxidative stress and inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion.