Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of the Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 on RuO2(110)
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The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 on a RuO2(110) surface from tetrakis(dimethylamido) titanium and water at 110 degrees C was investigated using near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) at precursor pressures up to 0.1 mbar. In addition to the expected cyclic surface species, evidence for side reactions was found. Dimethylamine adsorbs on the surface during the TDMAT half-cycle, and a second species, likely methyl methylenimine, also forms. The removal of the amide ligand and the formation of an alkyammonium species during the water half-cycle were found to be pressure dependent. The O 1s, Ru 3d, and Ti 2p spectra show the formation of the Ru-O-Ti interface, and the binding energies are consistent with formation of TiO2 after one full ALD cycle. Dosing TDMAT on the RuO2(110) surface at room temperature promotes a multilayer formation that begins to desorb at 40 degrees C. The imine species is not seen until 60 degrees C. These insights into the ALD mechanism and precursor pressure dependence on reactivity highlight the utility of NAP-XPS in studying ALD processes and interface formation.