The non-inherited maternal HLA haplotype affects the risk for type 1 diabetes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The aim was to test the hypothesis that the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype that is not inherited from the mother, that is, the non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA) affects the risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 563 children with T1D and 286 non-diabetic control children from Sweden were genotyped for DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles. The frequency of positively (DR4-DQA1*0301-B1*0302 and DR3-DQA1*0501-B1*0201), negatively (DR15-DQ A1*0102-B1*0602) or neutrally (all other) T1D associated HLA haplotypes were compared between NIMA and non-inherited paternal antigen (NIPA). All comparisons were carried out between HLA-matched patients and controls. The frequency of positively associated NIMA was higher among both DR4/X-positive healthy individuals compared wit DR4/X-positive patients (P < 0.00003) and DR3/X-positive healthy individuals compared with DR3/X-positive patients (P < 0.009). No such difference was observed for NIPA. High-risk NIMA was increased compared to NIPA among healthy DR3/X- and DR4/X-positive children (P < 0.05). There was no difference in frequency of positively associated haplotypes between patient NIMA and NIPA. The NIMA but not the NIPA affects the risk for T1D, suggesting that not only the inherited but also non-inherited maternal HLA haplotypes, perhaps through microchimerism or other mechanisms, may influence the risk for the disease.


External organisations
  • Karolinska Institutet
  • Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping
  • Skåne University Hospital
  • Lund University
  • Linköping University
Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
JournalInternational Journal of Immunogenetics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009
Publication categoryResearch