Trust, welfare states and income equality: Sorting out the causality

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous. Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Research areas and keywords

Subject classification (UKÄ) – MANDATORY

  • Economics


  • Social trust, Inequality, Welfare state
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-199
JournalEuropean Journal of Political Economy
StatePublished - 2014
Publication categoryResearch