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My present research centres on late medieval and early modern England (until 1800). It concerns on the one hand how climate cooling from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age relates to the fossil energy transition, and on the other the relative importance of fossil energy in liberating the British Economy from land constraints, compared with fisheries, external trade, and agricultural yields improvements. Previous research has centred instead on the 19th and 20th centuries, on the one hand theories of unequal exchange, especially between high- and low-wage countries, and on the other on the direction, quantity, and share of trade-embodied environmental inputs and impacts (materials, land, water, CO2, etc). My general ambition is to open economic history towards a sphere of non- or extrahuman powers and feedbacks, but I am also interested in the internal mechanisms of divergence arising from a protected high-wage area when other prices are allowed to equalise globally.


My teaching mostly concerns historical energy transitions, outsourcing of environmental impacts, sustainable development and degrowth.

UKÄ subject classification

  • Economic History


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