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Personal profile


Research Areas

  • Sociology of law
  • Socio-legal theory
  • eHealth
  • Online doctors
  • Perceived justice
  • Healthcare law and ethics
  • Swedish health system
  • Critical realism
  • Philosophy of social science
  • Quantitative research
  • Mixed methods research
  • Partial Least Squares Path Modelling

Current Research

Online doctors, healthcare services provided via smartphone apps, have gone from being peripheral to seriously challenging the conventional way of providing healthcare in Sweden. Through two online surveys, this study investigated whether the respondents perceived the Swedish online doctor Kry as a fair healthcare service and how these perceptions influenced their will to use the service.

Swedish healthcare law provides that the healthcare should strive towards an equal healthcare for the entire population and be guided, for instance, by the needs principle, which states that those in most need of care should receive care first. However, through political and legal reforms during the last decade or two, the healthcare has been reformed into a quasi-market with free choice as a guiding principle. Influenced by critical realism and Alan Norrie's sociology of law, it is showed that these reforms have introduced a conflict between the individual’s right to choose freely, and the requirement for the healthcare to make priorities based on needs, solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. Swedish online doctors as a phenomenon have emerged in this context.

Unlike the health system at large, online doctors are well equipped for a healthcare guided by free choice and which is becoming increasingly consumer-driven. It is argued that the survey respondents perceive of the Kry experience in a way that resembles the experience of online shopping. Online doctors accommodate free choice, the right to receive healthcare when one demands it, but they do not seem to contribute to a more equal healthcare for the entire population. This discrepancy between ethical principles is built into the Swedish health system and into Swedish healthcare law

The project was partly funded by the Swedish Public Health Agency.

UKÄ subject classification

  • Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
  • Law and Society
  • Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
  • Social Psychology

Free keywords

  • critical realism
  • distributive justice
  • ethical principles in healthcare
  • free choice
  • healthcare demands
  • healthcare law and ethics
  • healthcare needs
  • Kry
  • latent variables
  • mHealth
  • Alan Norrie
  • online doctors
  • online survey
  • PLS path modelling
  • privacy calculus
  • procedural justice
  • retail health
  • SmartPLS
  • sociology of law
  • Swedish healthcare
  • telehealth
  • quasi market


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