The transition to a low-carbon economy requires enabling technologies including energy-efficient lighting products. Previous research has highlighted the need for increased collection and recycling of lamps to reduce mercury emissions, to avoid unnecessary negative environmental impacts, and to recover the critical materials they contain. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) policies aim to address these issues by promoting collection and recycling of waste products, closing material loops, and providing ecodesign incentives. This licentiate thesis contributed to EPR research with detailed knowledge about the performance of EPR policies for energy-efficient lamps in Europe. Using a theory-based evaluation approach, both the performance in relation to EPR goals as well as challenges perceived by key stakeholders were analyzed. Factors contributing to high operational performance and best practices in the Nordic countries were identified, as well as areas for further improvement. The research also examined opportunities and barriers for closing critical material loops from waste lamps, with considerations of value discussed in the context of prior and future EPR research.