This is an advance study group at the Pufendorf Institute. Our aim with this group is to explore the causal relations between peace and the natural environment in the context of internal armed conflicts (given the complexity of the topic, we will limit our theme to conflicts that occur within national territories, what we refer to here as internal armed conflicts). This exploration further implies a normative objective for us, namely to identify conditions which post-conflict transition processes yield sustainable outcomes for both people and the natural environment. Such conditions may include, for example, aspects of political and social culture (e.g. regarding democratic awareness, discrimination patterns, enforcement gaps), environmental awareness, infrastructure or ethnical / social / environmental diversity, to name but a few.