The aims of the study are i) to compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels between clinically depressed individuals with insufficient treatment response and healthy controls and ii) to test the association between 25(OH)D levels and different affective disorder diagnoses (i.e., major depressive disorder (MDD) single episode, MDD recurrent episode, chronic MDD, and dysthymia), as well as grade of suicidal ideation.
We quantified serum 25(OH)D in 202 individuals with difficult-to-treat depression (DTD) and 41 healthy controls. Patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR). ANCOVA was used to test differences in mean 25(OH)levels between depressed and controls, adjusting for sex, age, smoking, sampling season, ethnicity, somatic illness, and body mass index (BMI). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the association between depression and 25(OH)D levels.
Patients with difficult-to-treat depression had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D compared to healthy controls (ANCOVA, F = 4.89; p = 0.03). Thirty percent of the depressed patients were 25(OH)D deficient (<50 nmol/L) compared to 5% of the controls (Chi-squared test, χ2 = 11.38; p < 0.01). The odds for being depressed decreased significantly with 17% per 10 nmol/L increase of 25(OH)D (Binary logistic regression, p < 0.05).
The cross-sectional design of the study precludes any conclusions about causality. A large part of the patients took psychotropic drugs and/or had somatic illnesses, which might have affected the results.
The results of the present study add to the body of evidence linking 25(OH)D deficiency and depression. Further investigations are warranted to better understand any clinical implications of this association.
Translated title of the contributionVitamin-D nivå är sänkt hos patienter med svårbehandlad depression
Original languageEnglish
Article number100126
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalComprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 9

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Psychiatry


Dive into the research topics of '25(OH)D levels are decreased in patients with difficult-to-treat depression'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this