A Model of Software Prototyping based on a Systematic Map

Elizabeth Bjarnason, Franz Lang, Alexander Mjöberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingPaper in conference proceedingpeer-review


Background: Prototyping is an established practice for user interface design and for requirements engineering within agile software development, even so there is a lack of theory on prototyping. Aims: The main research objective is to provide a means to categorise prototyping instances, in order to enable comparison and reflection of prototyping practices. Method: We have performed a systematic mapping study of methodological aspects of prototyping consisting of thirty-three primary studies upon which we designed a model of prototyping that was validated through a focus group at a case company. Results: Our model consists of four aspects of prototyping, namely purpose, prototype scope, prototype use, and exploration strategy. This model supported the focus group participants in discussing prototyping practices by considering concrete prototyping instances in terms of the concepts provided by our model. Conclusions: The model can be used to categorise prototyping instances and can support practitioners in reflecting on their prototyping practices. Our study provides a starting point for further research on prototyping and into how the practice can be applied more cost-effectively to elicit, validate, and communicate requirements.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication15th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM)
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Software Engineering

Free keywords

  • Requirements Engineering
  • Prototyping
  • Systematic mapping study


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