A multilevel analysis of condom use among adolescents in the European Union.

Jeffrey Lazarus, Mahnaz Moghaddassi, E Godeau, J Ross, C Vignes, Per-Olof Östergren, Jerker Liljestrand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (SciVal)


OBJECTIVES: This study examined which individual and national factors affect condom use among adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Multilevel analysis. METHODS: This study reviewed the data on bullying, alcohol use and condom use provided by 18 European countries and subnational entities in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Another eight contextual variables were also analysed. Three multilevel logistic regression models were applied consecutively (analysing for crude geographical and school variance in condom use, adjusting for gender and adjusting all variables for one another). RESULTS: Among the 15-year-olds studied, 7.0% of the total variance in condom use was explained by school-related factors (intraschool-level correlation) and 5.8% by national/subnational factors. In the empty model, condom use was significantly associated with gender, alcohol consumption, predominant national religion and national prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the full model, there was also a significant association with the Human Development Index ranking, gross domestic product, Gini coefficient and the Gender-related Development Index. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that while alcohol, gender, human development level, income, religion and HIV prevalence affect condom use in young Europeans, these factors do not explain all or even most of the variation. Nonetheless, since some of these factors are not traditionally associated with young people's sexual and reproductive health, these findings should enable more nuanced health policy programming.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-144
JournalPublic Health
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


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