A new liquid-phase microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop

Mohammad Reza Khalili Zanjani, Yadollah Yamini, Shahab Shariati, Jan Åke Jönsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the present study, a new and versatile liquid-phase microextraction method is described. This method requires very simple and cheap apparatus and also a small amount of organic solvent. Eight microliters of 1-undecanol was delivered to the surface of solution containing analytes and solution was stirred for a desired time. Then sample vial was cooled by inserting it into an ice bath for 5 min. The solidified 1-undecanol was transferred
into a suitable vial and immediately melted; then, 2 uL of it was injected into a gas chromatograph for analysis.
Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as model compounds for developing and evaluating of the method performance.
Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID).
Several factors influencing the microextraction efficiency, such as the nature and volume of organic solvent, the temperature and volume of
sample solution, stirring rate and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the techniquewas evaluated by determination
of trace amounts of PAHs in environmental samples. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LOD) of the method were in the range
of 0.07–1.67 ugL−1 and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for 10 ugL−1 PAHs were <7%. A good linearity (r2 > 0.995) in a calibration range
of 0.25–300.00 ugL−1 was obtained. After 30 min extraction duration, enrichment factors were in the range of 594–1940. Finally, the proposed
method was applied to the determination of trace amounts of PAHs in several real water samples, and satisfactory results were resulted. Since very
simple devices were used, this new technique is affordable, efficient, and convenient for extraction and determination of low concentrations of
PAHs in water samples.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-293
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Bibliographical note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Analytical Chemistry (S/LTH) (011001004)

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Analytical Chemistry

Free keywords

  • Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection
  • Liquid-phase microextraction
  • Water analysis
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons


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