This paper presents a reconfigurable radio frequency front-end (RFFE) tailored for direct RF sampling receivers operating within Frequency Range 1 (FR-1) of the 5G spectrum. It consists of a balun-LNA, a noise-cancelling, current-reuse, Q-enhanced filter, and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). Fabricated in 22-nm FD-SOI technology, the RFFE covers the entire frequency range from 1.7 to 6.4 GHz with a tunable bandwidth ranging from 50 MHz to 1.2 GHz. The experimental results confirm that the RFFE achieves 3.9 dB NF, 55 dB ultimate OOB rejection, −4 dBm IB-IIP3, and 23 dBm OOB-IIP3. Furthermore, a digital calibration scheme is proposed to compensate for process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations, achieving lower than 2 % error in 6.61 µs on average. Subsequently, a proximal policy optimization (PPO) agent is employed to choose the optimal policy for the successive adjustments of quality factors and resonance frequencies of the filter’s resonators. As a result, the proposed reinforcement learning algorithm reduces the calibration’s convergence time by 59 %.
Original languageEnglish
Article number155112
JournalAEÜ - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jan 2

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Signal Processing

Free keywords

  • RF front-end
  • Direct sampling receiver
  • 5G
  • filter
  • calibration
  • FD-SOI


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