This review presents the status and outlook for shared energy systems (SES) and fifth-generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC). It provides an overview of the technical and functional knowledge encompassing design and development, operational and system architecture, and control and decision support systems of these technologies. The review also presents different tools and models found in the literature for design, simulation, feasibility, high-level control, and business transactions of SES and 5GDHC. It complements existing reviews with updated knowledge and presents new 5GDHC facilities and fresh perspectives. Moreover, it incorporates legal and social barriers that risk being forgotten. The review identifies existing research gaps and challenges that need to be addressed in the further development of SES and 5GDHC. Finally, the article presents and characterizes a new energy solution built in Lund, Sweden. The characterization is performed in line with the definitions of 5GDHC and SES.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Costa et al. () presented adaptive control and optimization methods from several district heating and cooling projects funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. The study presents projects including Indigo and FLEXYNETS, among others. Indigo is a project that aims to improve the efficiency of district cooling through operation optimization. FLEXYNETS is the development of a 5GDHC system containing decentralized production with local reversible heat pumps and low-temperature distribution networks (10–20 °C). Other projects included in the study are E2district, InDeal, and H-Disnet. For these projects, the study describes control systems for production, distribution, storage, HVAC, and demand response systems, and optimization methods for improving energy efficiency and reducing the amount of fossil energy.
© 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Energy Systems