A simple and easy-to-use extraction procedure has been optimised, validated, and applied for extraction of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in urine and spiked plasma samples. PhIP is a carcinogenic and mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amine that is formed during cooking of meat and fish. The novelty of the extraction procedure lies in using a short piece of narrow capillary-like microporous hollow-fibre (HF) membrane as extraction device. The HF membrane was filled with a few microlitres of acidic solution and the membrane pores were impregnated with an organic extraction solvent. Therefore, the technique was called hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane (HF-SLM) extraction. The HF extraction device was then supported by a syringe needle and directly immersed in urine (1.4 mL) or plasma (0.3 mL) previously made alkaline by adding 0.5 mol L−1 NaOH solution to give a final volume of 1.6 mL. The operation of the HF-SLM extraction at the optimal conditions resulted in a PhIP extraction efficiency of 74% from both spiked urine and plasma, corresponding to enrichment factors of 126 and 27, respectively. For 90 min extraction time, limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 8 and 25 pg mL−1 for urine and 6 and 11 pg mL−1 for plasma. Within-day repeatability (n = 6) and between-day reproducibility (n = 3) were, respectively, 5% and 13% for urine and 6% and 7% for plasma. Analysis of urine samples collected for 12 h after a volunteer had eaten 250 g well-done chicken showed the PhIP concentration was 124 ± 21 pg mL−1, calculated assuming an extraction efficiency of 74%.
Bibliographical notePublished online: 6 November 2007
The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Analytical Chemistry (S/LTH) (011001004), Department of Food Technology (011001210), Food Technology (011001017), Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry (011001300)
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Food Engineering
- Analytical Chemistry
- Heterocyclic aromatic amines - 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4
- 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) - Plasma - Urine - Hollow-fibre supported liquid membrane extraction