Airway closure in anesthetized infants and children: influence of inspiratory pressures and volumes

Adalbjörn Thorsteinsson, Olof Werner, Christer Jonmarker, A Larsson

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13 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Background: Cyclic opening and closing of lung units during tidal breathing may be an important cause of iatrogenic lung injury. We hypothesized that airway closure is uncommon in children with healthy lungs when inspiratory pressures are kept low, but paradoxically may occur when inspiratory pressures are increased. Methods: Elastic equilibrium volume (EEV) and closing capacity (CC) were measured with a tracer gas (SF6) technique in 11 anesthetized, muscle-relaxed, endotracheally intubated and artificially ventilated healthy children, aged 0.6-13years. Airway closing was studied in a randomized order at two inflation pressures, +20 or +30 cmH(2)O, and CC and CC/EEV were calculated from the plots obtained when the lungs were exsufflated to -20 cmH(2)O. (CC/EEV >1 indicates that airway closure might occur during tidal breathing). Furthermore, a measure of uneven ventilation, multiple breath alveolar mixing efficiency (MBAME), was obtained. Results: Airway closure within the tidal volume (CC/EEV>1) was observed in four and eight children (not significant, NS) after 20 and 30cmH(2)O inflation, respectively. However, CC30/EEV was>CC20/EEV in all children (Pless than or equal to0.001). The MBAME was 75+/-7% (normal) and did not correlate with CC/EEV. Conclusion: Airway closure within tidal volumes may occur in artificially ventilated healthy children during ventilation with low inspiratory pressure. However, the risk of airway closure and thus opening within the tidal volume increases when the inspiratory pressures are increased.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)529-536
JournalActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Volume46
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Anesthesiology and Intensive Care

Keywords

  • multibreath
  • pediatric
  • anesthesia
  • airway closure
  • sulfur hexafluoride
  • functional residual capacity
  • washout

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