Objective Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether alcohol consumption is associated with risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), an autoimmune form of diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. Design Population-based case-control study Methods We used data from ESTRID case-control study carried out between 2010 and 2013, including 250 incident cases of LADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies [GADA] positive) and 764 cases of type 2 diabetes (GADA negative), and 1012 randomly selected controls aged ≥35. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of diabetes in relation to alcohol intake, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, smoking, and education. Results Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.92-0.99 for every 5-g increment in daily intake). Similar results were seen for LADA, but stratification by median GADA levels revealed that the results only pertained to LADA with low GADA (OR 0.85; 95% 0.76-0.94 per 5g alcohol/day), whereas no association was seen with LADA high GADA (OR 1.00, 95% CI; 0.94-1.06 per 5g/day). Every 5-g increment of daily alcohol intake was associated with a 10% increase in GADA levels (p=0.0312), and a10% reduction in HOMA-IR (p=0.0418). Conclusions Our findings indicate that alcohol intake may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and type 2-like LADA, but has no beneficial effects on diabetes-related autoimmunity.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Endocrinology and Diabetes