Background: An allogeneic antitumour effect has been reported for various cancers. We evaluated the experience of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 124 patients from 21 European centres. Patients and methods: Reduced intensity conditioning and peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling (n = 106), a mismatched related (n = 5), or an unrelated (n = 13) donor were used. Immunosuppression was cyclosporine alone, or combined with methotrexate or mycophenolate mofetil. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were given to 42 patients. The median follow-up was 15 (range 3-41) months. Results: All but three patients engrafted. The cumulative incidence of moderate to severe, grades II-IV acute GVHD was 40% and for chronic GVHD it was 33%. Transplant-related mortality was 16% at one year. Complete (n = 4) or partial (n = 24) responses, median 150 (range 42-600) days post-transplant, were associated with time from diagnosis to HSCT, mismatched donor and acute GVHD II-IV. Factors associated with survival included chronic GVHD (hazards ratio, HR 4.12, P < 0.001), DLI (HR 3.39, P < 0.001), < 3 metastatic sites (HR 2.61, P = 0.002) and a Karnofsky score > 70 (HR 2.33, P = 0.03). Patients (n = 17) with chronic GVHD and given DLI had a 2-year survival of 70%. Conclusion: Patients with metastatic RCC, less than three metastatic locations and a Karnofsky score > 70% can be considered for HSCT. Posttransplant DLI and limited chronic GVHD improved the patient survival.
- allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- intensity conditioning
- renal cell carcinoma
- antitumour effect