Bi2O3 is a promising material for solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC) due to the high ionic conductivity of some phases. The largest value is reached for its δ-phase, but it is normally stable at temperatures too high for SOFC operation, while nanostructured oxide is believed to have more suitable stabilization temperature. However, to manufacture such a material with a controlled chemical composition is a challenging task. In this work, we investigated the fabrication of nanostructured Bi2O3 films formed by deposition of free Bi-oxide nanoparticles created in situ. The particle-production method was based on reactive sputtering and vapour aggregation. Depending on the fabrication conditions, the nanoparticles contained either a combination of Bi–metal and Bi-oxide, or only Bi-oxide. Prior to deposition, the free particles were probed in the beam – by synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), which allowed assessing their composition “on the-fly”. The nanoparticle films obtained after deposition were studied by PES, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction. The films' chemical composition, grain dimensions, and crystal structure were probed. Our analysis suggests that our method produced Bi-oxide films in more than one polymorph of Bi2O3.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10369-10381
Number of pages13
JournalPhysical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Materials Chemistry


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