Background: Type 3 von Willebrand's disease (VWD) patients present markedly reduced levels of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII. Because of its rarity, the bleeding phenotype of type 3 VWD is poorly described, as compared to type 1 VWD. Aims: To evaluate the frequency and the severity of bleeding symptoms across age and sex groups in type 3 patients and to compare these with those observed in type 1 VWD patients to investigate any possible clustering of bleeding symptoms within type 3 patients. Methods: We compared the bleeding phenotype and computed the bleeding score (BS) using the MCMDM-1VWD bleeding questionnaire in patients enrolled in the 3WINTERS-IPS and MCMDM-1VWD studies. Results: In 223 unrelated type 3 VWD patients, both the BS and the number of clinically relevant bleeding symptoms were increased in type 3 as compared to type 1 VWD patients (15 versus 6 and 5 versus 3). Intracranial bleeding, oral cavity, hemarthroses, and deep hematomas were at least five-fold over-represented in type 3 VWD. A more severe bleeding phenotype was evident in patients having von Willebrand factor antigen levels < 20 IU/dL at diagnosis in the two merged cohorts. In type 3 patients, there was an apparent clustering of hemarthrosis with gastrointestinal bleeding and epistaxis, whereas bleeding after surgery or tooth extraction clusters with oral bleeding and menorrhagia. Conclusions: In the largest cohort of type 3 VWD patients, we were able to describe a distinct clinical phenotype that is associated with the presence of a more severe hemostatic defect.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- type 1 epidemiology hemorrhage blood coagulation disorders
- type 3 von Willebrand disease
- von Willebrand disease