Bronchodilator Responsiveness Measured by Spirometry and Impulse Oscillometry in Patients with Asthma After Short Acting Antimuscarinic and/or Beta-2-Agonists Inhalation

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) in asthma involves both the central and peripheral airways but is primarily relieved with beta-2-agonists and evaluated by spirometry. To date, antimuscarinics can be added as a reliever medication in more severe asthma. We hypothesize that combining both short-acting beta-2 agonist (SABA) and short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) could also improve the responsiveness in mild-moderate asthma. Therefore, we aimed to compare the direct effects of inhaling SABA alone, SAMA alone or combining both SABA and SAMA on the central and peripheral airways in asthma.

METHODS: Twenty-three patients with mild-moderate BDR in asthma performed dynamic spirometry and impulse oscillometry before (baseline) and multiple timepoints within an hour after inhalation of SABA (salbutamol), SAMA (ipratropium bromide), or both SABA and SAMA at three different visits.

RESULTS: The use of SAMA alone did not show any improvement compared to the use of SABA alone. Inhalation of SABA+SAMA, however, averaged either similar or better BDR than SABA alone in FEV 1, MMEF, FVC, R5, R20 and R5-R20. Inhaling SABA+SAMA reached a stable BDR in more patients within 0-10 minutes and also reached the FEV 1 (Δ%)>12% faster (3.5 minutes) than inhaling SABA alone (5.1 minutes). Inhaling SABA+SAMA was significantly better than SAMA alone in FEV 1 ( p = 0.015), MMEF ( p = 0.0059) and R20 ( p = 0.0049). Using these three variables highlighted a subgroup (30%, including more males) of patients that were more responsive to inhaling SABA+SAMA than SABA alone.

CONCLUSION: Overall, combining SAMA with SABA was faster and more consistent at increasing the lung function than SABA alone or SAMA alone, and the additive effect was best captured by incorporating peripheral-related variables. Therefore, SAMA should be considered as an add-on reliever for mild-moderate patients with BDR in asthma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-32
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Asthma and Allergy
Volume17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy

Free keywords

  • BDR
  • central airway
  • mild-moderate asthma
  • peripheral airways
  • SABA
  • SAMA

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