Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of ammonia (NH3) with excitation of the C'-X transition at 304.8 nm and fluorescence detection in the 565 nm C'-A band has been investigated, targeting combustion diagnostics. The impact of laser irradiance, temperature, and pressure has been studied, and simulation of NH3-spectra, fitted to experimental data, facilitated interpretation of the results. The LIF-signal showed quadratic dependence on laser irradiance up to 2 GW/cm(2). Stimulated emission, resulting in loss of excited molecules, is induced above 10 GW/cm(2), i.e., above irradiances attainable for LIF imaging. Maximum LIF-signal was obtained for excitation at the 304.8 nm bandhead; however, lower temperature sensitivity over the range 400-700 K can be obtained probing lines around 304.9 nm. A decrease in fluorescence signal was observed with pressure up to 5 bar absolute and attributed to collisional quenching. A detection limit of 800 ppm, at signal-to-noise ratio 1.5, was identified for single-shot LIF imaging over an area of centimeter scale, whereas for single-point measurements, the technique shows potential for sub-ppm detection. Moreover, high-quality NH3-imaging has been achieved in laminar and turbulent premixed flames. Altogether, two-photon fluorescence provides a useful tool for imaging NH3-detection in combustion diagnostics.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics