Chemical composition and mass emission factors of candle smoke particles

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The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of particle emissions from candle burning in indoor air. Two representative types of tapered candies were studied during steady burn, sooting burn and smouldering (upon extinction) under controlled conditions in a walk-in stainless steel chamber. Steady burn emits relatively high number emissions of ultrafine particles dominated by either phosphates or alkali nitrates. The likely source of these particles is flame retardant additives to the wick. Sooting burn in addition emits larger particles mainly consisting of agglomerated elemental carbon. This burning mode is associated with the highest mass emission factors. Particles emitted during smouldering upon extinction are dominated by organic matter. A mass closure was illustrated for the total mass concentration, the summed mass concentration from chemical analysis and the size-integrated mass concentration assessed from number distribution measurements using empirically determined effective densities for the three particle types. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-208
JournalJournal of Aerosol Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Bibliographical note

The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Nuclear Physics (Faculty of Technology) (011013007), Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (011025002)

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics

Free keywords

  • Ultrafine particles
  • Candles
  • Aerosol
  • Indoor air
  • Mass closure
  • Soot


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