Clean Production of Levulinic Acid from Fructose and Glucose in Salt Water by Heterogeneous Catalytic Dehydration

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13 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Levulinic acid (LA) is considered to be one of the promising organic bio-platform chemicals and intermediates for the synthesis of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. In the present study, heterogeneous catalytic dehydration of hexose sugars, fructose and glucose, using a strong cation exchange resin (hydrogen form) as an acid catalyst, was performed to produce LA in an aqueous medium. The effect of salts such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, Na2CO3, and Na2SO4 in the medium on the rate of sugar conversion and LA yield was evaluated. Under optimum reaction conditions, 10% (w/w) fructose was dehydrated to LA (with 74.6% yield) in 10% (w/w) NaCl aqueous solution in 24 h at 110 °C using the catalyst at 30% (w/w sugar). Even 10% (w/w) glucose monohydrate was directly dehydrated to LA (with 70.7% yield) under similar conditions but at 145 °C. This study shows that the salts enhance the rate of catalytic dehydration in the order of Cl- > CO32- > SO42-. Thus, the combination of high sugar concentration and heterogeneous catalysis in an aqueous system under relatively mild conditions could provide a high-yielding and sustainable process for bio-based LA production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14275-14282
Number of pages8
JournalACS Omega
Volume5
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Biocatalysis and Enzyme Technology

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