Combustion Engine Characterization and Development by Means of Laser Diagnostics

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)


Planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) has been utilized for two-dimensional imaging in combustion environments. By using tracer LIF the fuel distribution prior to ignition has been monitored in a GDI-engine. The results obtained were used to determine the influence from various engine parameters such as nozzle type, spray angle, duration of injection, start of injection, piston shape, etc. Two fundamentally different concepts for controlling the stratification was evaluated and compared. In addition, the results were compared with CFD-modelling performed at Volvo Car Corporation. Hence, the results from the performed laser diagnostics were in direct use in the work of developing a new engine concept.

Due to the strictly limited optical access of the GDI-engine an endoscopic detection system was developed and used for monitoring the distribution of gaseous fuel inside the combustion chamber. The endoscope provided an unrestricted view in areas of special interest that could not be reached by conventional through the piston detection.

Raman spectroscopy has been applied to perform cycle-resolved measurements of the air/fuel-ratio in a running engine. The technique proved capable of providing quantitative data from single-shot measurements. Demonstrations of such measurements have been performed in both GDI- and HCCI-engines. In addition, a technique for making in-situ absolute calibration of fuel tracer LIF images using Raman scattering is outlined in detail.

Different optical techniques have been utilized for primarily investigations of the mixture preparation and combustion in HCCI-engines. Fuel tracer LIF was used to make two-dimensional, cycle resolved, measurements of the fuel distribution. From this data the degree of homogeneity of the charge could be determined for different mixing strategies. Raman scattering provided cycle resolved absolute values of the air/fuel-ratio. Spontaneous emission from the flame was collected through various filters with an image intensified CCD-camera and with a high speed framing camera. Absorption measurements using a continuos light source revealed useful information for future diagnostics.

A high-speed laser and imaging system has been adapted and used for true single-cycle resolved measurements in combustion engines. This technique provided a unique ability to study various combustion parameters with a high temporal resolution and without any averaging effects caused by cycle-to-cycle variations. The in-cylinder spray and fuel distributions were investigated in a GDI-engine by means of fuel tracer LIF. The early flame development in the same engine was visualized by high-speed imaging of OH-radicals. The highly stochastic ignition and combustion characteristics of HCCI engines were thoroughly studied. The high-speed imaging technique proved to be a crucial tool for mapping the fuel concentration distribution during the short combustion events. Both two- and three-dimensional concentration maps were generated to visualize the gradual consumption of the fuel that is unique to HCCI combustion.

Primary investigations of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence for detection of carbon monoxide have been performed in the laboratory. The applicability of the technique in a LPP gas turbine combustor was briefly investigated at Volvo Aero Corporation.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Combustion Physics
  • [unknown], [unknown], Supervisor, External person
Award date2002 Apr 19
Print ISBNs91-628-5152-7
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Bibliographical note

Defence details

Date: 2002-04-19
Time: 10:15
Place: Lecture hall B, Dept. of Physics

External reviewer(s)

Name: Sick, Volker
Title: Prof
Affiliation: [unknown]


Article: I. M. Richter, B. Axelsson, K. Nyholm, M. Aldén:Real-Time Calibration of Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence Air/Fuel-Ration Measurements in Combustion Environments Using in-situ Raman ScatteringTwenty-Seventh International Symposium on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, (1998), pp. 51-57.
Article: II. M. Richter, B. Axelsson, M. Aldén:Engine Diagnostics Using Laser Induced Fluorescence Signals Collected Through an Endoscopic Detection SystemSAE paper 982465, (1998).
Article: III. M. Richter, B. Axelsson, M. Aldén:Investigation of the Fuel Distribution and the In-Cylinder Flow Field in a Stratified Charge Engine Using Laser Techniques and Comparison with CFD-ModellingSAE paper 1999-01-3540, (1999).
Article: IV. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, A Franke, M. Richter:A study of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion process by chemiluminescence imagingSAE paper 1999-01-3680, (1999).
Article: V. M. Richter, A Franke, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson:Optical Diagnostics Applied to a Naturally Aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition EngineSAE paper 1999-01-3649, (1999).
Article: VI. Löfström, J. Engström, M. Richter, C. Kaminski, P. Johansson, K. Nyholm, J. Hult, J. Nygren, M. Aldén:Feasibility studies and application of laser/optical diagnostics for characterization of a practical low-emission gas turbine combustorASME Turbo Expo 2000 Congress, Paper 2000-GT-0124, (2000).
Article: VII. M. Richter, J. Engström, A. Franke, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, B. Johansson:The influence of charge inhomgeneity on the HCCI combustion processSAE paper 2000-01-2868, (2000).
Article: VIII. F. Kaminski, J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, A. Franke, M. Aldén:Development of high speed spectroscopic imaging techniques for the time resolved study of spark ignition phenomenaSAE paper 2000-01-2833, (2000).
Article: IX. J. Nygren, M. Richter, J. Hult, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén:Temporally resolved single-cycle measurements of fuel- and OH-distributions in a spark ignition engine using high speed laser spectroscopyProceedings of The Fifth International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines, Nagoya, Japan, pp. 572-580, (2001)
Article: X. J. Hult, M. Richter, J. Nygren, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson:Application of a high-speed laser diagnostic system for single-cycle resolved imaging in IC enginesSubmitted to Applied Optics, October, (2001).
Article: XI. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson, M. Richter, J. Nygren, J. Hult, M Aldén:The HCCI Combustion Process in a Single Cycle – High-Speed Fuel Tracer LIF and Chemiluminescence ImagingSAE paper 2002-01-0424, (2002).
Article: XII. J. Nygren, J. Hult, M. Richter, M. Aldén, A. Hultqvist, M. Christensen, B. Johansson:Three-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging of Fuel Distributions in an HCCI EngineSubmitted to the 29:th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, (2002).

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics


  • framdrivningssystem
  • Laser technology
  • Laserteknik
  • plasma
  • fluiddynamik
  • Gaser
  • plasmas
  • Gases
  • fluid dynamics
  • Motorer
  • laser engine lif plif
  • Motors and propulsion systems
  • Fysicumarkivet A:2002:Richter


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