Compositional and Interfacial Engineering Yield High-Performance and Stable p-i-n Perovskite Solar Cells and Mini-Modules

Janardan Dagar, Markus Fenske, Amran Al-Ashouri, Christof Schultz, Bor Li, Hans Köbler, Rahim Munir, Gopinath Parmasivam, Jinzhao Li, Igal Levine, Aboma Merdasa, Lukas Kegelmann, Hampus Näsström, Jose A. Marquez, Thomas Unold, Daniel M. Többens, Rutger Schlatmann, Bert Stegemann, Antonio Abate, Steve AlbrechtEva Unger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (SciVal)


Through the optimization of the perovskite precursor composition and interfaces to selective contacts, we achieved a p-i-n-type perovskite solar cell (PSC) with a 22.3% power conversion efficiency (PCE). This is a new performance record for a PSC with an absorber bandgap of 1.63 eV. We demonstrate that the high device performance originates from a synergy between (1) an improved perovskite absorber quality when introducing formamidinium chloride (FACl) as an additive in the "triple cation" Cs0.05FA0.79MA0.16PbBr0.51I2.49 (Cs-MAFA) perovskite precursor ink, (2) an increased open-circuit voltage, VOC, due to reduced recombination losses when using a lithium fluoride (LiF) interfacial buffer layer, and (3) high-quality hole-selective contacts with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of [2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid (2PACz) on ITO electrodes. While all devices exhibit a high performance after fabrication, as determined from current-density voltage, J-V, measurements, substantial differences in device performance become apparent when considering longer-term stability data. A reduced long-term stability of devices with the introduction of a LiF interlayer is compensated for by using FACl as an additive in the metal-halide perovskite thin-film deposition. Optimized devices maintained about 80% of the initial average PCE during maximum power point (MPP) tracking for >700 h. We scaled the optimized device architecture to larger areas and achieved fully laser patterned series-interconnected mini-modules with a PCE of 19.4% for a 2.2 cm2 active area. A robust device architecture and reproducible deposition methods are fundamental for high performance and stable large-area single junction and tandem modules based on PSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13022-13033
Number of pages12
JournalACS applied materials & interfaces
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Materials Chemistry


  • FACl additive
  • interface modification
  • laser-interconnection
  • module
  • p-i-n solar cell
  • self-assembled monolayer
  • triple cation perovskite


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