Abstract
This thesis is concerned with modeling of the cracking process in reinforced concrete due to imposed deformations. Cracking is investigated both at early ages, during hydration, and at mature age when the final properties of the concrete are reached. One of the most important material characteristics of the concrete at early ages, the Young’s modulus is determined by means of a dynamic method called the resonance frequency method. The thesis consists of an introduction and four papers with the following contents:
Paper I Is a presentation of a simple constitutive model describing the thermal stress development in reinforced concrete at early ages. The most important input parameters are temperature history, stiffness development and tensile strength development. By means of a parametric investigation it is shown that the magnitude of thermal stresses is very sensitive to the timing between temperature rise and stiffness growth.
Paper II Presents results from Emodulus measurements at early ages. A simple dynamic method is used, based on measurement of resonance frequency and damping in a concrete prism. Using the dynamic test results an empirical conversion formula is suggested for prediction of the static Emodulus. Application of the conversion formula for two concrete mixtures showed consistency and good agreement with the static test results.
Paper III Deals with modeling of softening and cracking of reinforced concrete at mature age due to imposed deformations. Mediumthick structures provided with minimum reinforcement and exposed to sudden cooling corresponding to a drying shrinkage process are studied. It is shown that the force actually arising is about 0.50.7 of the nominal tension capacity of the wall and consequently may lead to a considerable reduction of the minimum reinforcement. This is valid for cases with imposed strain large enough to cause a through crack regardless the external restraint.
Paper IV Is a further development on the study of cracking due to cooling and shrinkage. The effect of slow cooling, the presence of wind and the influence of different geometries are investigated. It is concluded that in most practical cases cooling processes are slow leading to small internal restraint. For structures exposed to slow cooling processes and small external restraint stiffness relative to the axial stiffness of the wall, the crack reinforcement can be omitted. Crack reinforcement should be provided for structures with large dimensions in the direction of the restraint.
Paper I Is a presentation of a simple constitutive model describing the thermal stress development in reinforced concrete at early ages. The most important input parameters are temperature history, stiffness development and tensile strength development. By means of a parametric investigation it is shown that the magnitude of thermal stresses is very sensitive to the timing between temperature rise and stiffness growth.
Paper II Presents results from Emodulus measurements at early ages. A simple dynamic method is used, based on measurement of resonance frequency and damping in a concrete prism. Using the dynamic test results an empirical conversion formula is suggested for prediction of the static Emodulus. Application of the conversion formula for two concrete mixtures showed consistency and good agreement with the static test results.
Paper III Deals with modeling of softening and cracking of reinforced concrete at mature age due to imposed deformations. Mediumthick structures provided with minimum reinforcement and exposed to sudden cooling corresponding to a drying shrinkage process are studied. It is shown that the force actually arising is about 0.50.7 of the nominal tension capacity of the wall and consequently may lead to a considerable reduction of the minimum reinforcement. This is valid for cases with imposed strain large enough to cause a through crack regardless the external restraint.
Paper IV Is a further development on the study of cracking due to cooling and shrinkage. The effect of slow cooling, the presence of wind and the influence of different geometries are investigated. It is concluded that in most practical cases cooling processes are slow leading to small internal restraint. For structures exposed to slow cooling processes and small external restraint stiffness relative to the axial stiffness of the wall, the crack reinforcement can be omitted. Crack reinforcement should be provided for structures with large dimensions in the direction of the restraint.
Original language  English 

Qualification  Doctor 
Awarding Institution 

Supervisors/Advisors 

Award date  1997 May 28 
Publisher  
Publication status  Published  1997 
Bibliographical note
Defence detailsDate: 19970528
Time: 10:15
Place: John Ericssons väg 1, V:A
External reviewer(s)
Name: Holmgren, Jonas
Title: Professor
Affiliation: Department of Structural Engineering, Concrete Structures, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

Subject classification (UKÄ)
 Building Technologies
Free keywords
 minimum reinforcement
 cracking
 softening
 shrinkage
 cooling
 imposed deformations
 conversion formula
 static Emodulus
 damping coefficient
 resonance frequency
 dynamic Emodulus
 constitutive model
 thermal stress
 hydration process
 reinforced concrete structure
 early age
 crack control
 Building construction
 Byggnadsteknik