Cropland changes in times of conflict, reconstruction, and economic development in Iraqi Kurdistan

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Abstract

The destruction of land and forced migration during the Anfal attacks against the Kurds in Iraq in the late 1980s has been reported to have severe consequences for agricultural development. A reconstruction program to aid people in returning to their lands was launched in 1991. To assess the agricultural situation in the Duhok governorate during the pre-Anfal (A), post-Anfal (B), reconstruction (C), and present (D) periods, we mapped winter crops by focusing on inter-annual variability in vegetation greenness, using satellite images. The results indicate a decrease in cultivated area between period A and B, and a small increase between period B and C. This supports reports of a decline in cultivated area related to the Anfal campaign, and indicates increased activity during the reconstruction program. Period D showed a potential recovery with a cropland area similar to period A.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-88
JournalAmbio: a Journal of Human Environment
Volume45
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Free keywords

  • Agriculture
  • Conflict
  • Crop phenology
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
  • NDVI

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