Derivation and application of dose reduction factors for protective eyewear worn in interventional radiology and cardiology

Jill S Magee, Colin J Martin, Viktor Sandblom, Matthew J Carter, Anja Almén, Åke Cederblad, Pernilla Jonasson, Charlotta Lundh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Doses to the eyes of interventional radiologists and cardiologists could exceed the annual limit of 20 mSv proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Lead glasses of various designs are available to provide protection, but standard eye dosemeters will not take account of the protection they provide. The aim of this study has been to derive dose reduction factors (DRFs) equal to the ratio of the dose with no eyewear, divided by that when lead glasses are worn. Thirty sets of protective eyewear have been tested in x-ray fields using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate the patient and clinician in two centres. The experiments performed have determined DRFs from simulations of interventional procedures by measuring doses to the eyes of the phantom representing the clinician, using TLDs in Glasgow, Scotland and with an electronic dosemeter in Gothenburg, Sweden. During interventional procedures scattered x-rays arising from the patient will be incident on the head of the clinician from below and to the side. DRFs for x-rays incident on the front of lead glasses vary from 5.2 to 7.6, while values for orientations similar to those used in the majority of clinical practice are between 1.4 and 5.2. Specialised designs with lead glass side shields or of a wraparound style with angled lenses performed better than lead glasses based on the design of standard spectacles. Results suggest that application of a DRF of 2 would provide a conservative factor that could be applied to personal dosemeter measurements to account for the dose reduction provided by any type of lead glasses provided certain criteria relating to design and consistency of use are applied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-23
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Radiological Protection
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Dec
Externally publishedYes

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging

Free keywords

  • Absorption, Radiation
  • Cardiology/instrumentation
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • Eye Injuries/prevention & control
  • Eye Protective Devices
  • Humans
  • Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
  • Occupational Exposure/prevention & control
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiation Injuries/prevention & control
  • Radiation Protection/instrumentation
  • Radiology/instrumentation


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