Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities

Annika Hagenbjork-Gustafsson, Andreas Tornevi, Eva M. Andersson, Sandra Johannesson, Tom Bellander, Anne-Sophie Merritt, Håkan Tinnerberg, Flakan Westberg, Bertil Forsberg, Gerd Sallsten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (SciVal)

Abstract

Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1, 3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-443
JournalJournal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Environmental Health and Occupational Health

Keywords

  • 3-butadiene
  • 1
  • personal exposure
  • benzene
  • nitrogen dioxide
  • formaldehyde
  • mixed models

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this