Tremor is the most common movement disorder presenting to an outpatient neurology practice and is defined as a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. The authors review the clinical examination, classification, and diagnosis of tremor. The pathophysiology of the more common forms of tremor is outlined, and treatment options are discussed. Essential tremor is characterized primarily by postural and action tremors, may be a neurodegenerative disorder with pathologic changes in the cerebellum, and can be treated with a wide range of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods. Tremor at rest is typical for Parkinson's disease, but may arise independently of a dopaminergic deficit. Enhanced physiologic tremor, intention tremor, and dystonic tremor are discussed. Further differential diagnoses described in this review include drug- or toxin-induced tremor, neuropathic tremor, psychogenic tremor, orthostatic tremor, palatal tremor, tremor in Wilson's disease, and tremor secondary to cerebral lesions, such as Holmes' tremor ( midbrain tremor). An individualized approach to treatment of tremor patients is important, taking into account the degree of disability, including social embarrassment, which the tremor causes in the patient's life.
Bibliographical noteThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Department of Psychogeriatrics (013304000), Division IV (013230800)
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- essential tremor
- Parkinson's disease