In Parkinson's disease non-motor symptoms can appear even before the motor symptoms. Additionally to motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, the non-motor symptoms constitute one of the main problems when treating Parkinson's disease. They are also of high relevance for the quality of life. There are indications that a continuous dopaminergic stimulation can improve symptoms such as depression, sleep as well as autonomic disturbances. Treatment with apomorphine infusion subcutaneously or Duodopa (L-dopa/carbidopa) intraduodenally with portable pump systems are well-established regarding management of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Regarding effects on non-motor symptoms there are so far only a few studies with limited number of cases available.
Subject classification (UKÄ)