The factor Va (FVa) inactivation by activated protein C (APC), mediated by cleavages at Arg306 and Arg506 in FVa, is inhibited by both factor Xa (FXa) and prothrombin. While FXa is known to specifically inhibit the Arg506 cleavage, the effect of prothrombin has not been confined to one cleavage site. We used recombinant FV variants, FV:506Q/679Q and FV:306Q/679Q, to investigate the effect of prothrombin on the individual cleavage sites. The APC-mediated FVa inhibition was monitored by a prothrombinase-based FVa-assay and apparent first order rate constants were calculated for each of the cleavage sites both in the presence and absence of prothrombin. Prothrombin impaired cleavages at both Arg306 and Arg506 and the inhibition correlated with a delayed appearance of proteolytic products on Western blots. Almost complete inhibition was obtained at around 3 microM prothrombin, whereas half-maximal inhibition was obtained at 0.7 microM prothrombin. After cleavage of prothrombin by thrombin, the inhibitory activity was lost. The inhibitory effect of prothrombin on APC-mediated inhibition of FVa was seen both in the presence and absence of protein S but in particular for the Arg306 sites, it was more pronounced in the presence of protein S. Thus, prothrombin inhibition of APC inactivation of FVa appears to be due to both impaired APC function and decreased APC-cofactor function of protein S. In conclusion, FVa being part of the prothrombinase complex is protected from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. Release of products of prothrombin activation from the prothrombinase complex would alleviate the protection allowing APC-mediated inactivation of FVa.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Medicinal Chemistry