Energy – a scoping review for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023 project

Lieselotte Cloetens, Lars Ellegård

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


We need energy intake to provide energy and nutrients to our cells. The amount of daily energy intake should aim for energy balance, which results in good health. Under-or overconsumption of total daily energy over a longer period leads to increased risk of diseases. In this scoping review, the components of daily energy requirement are defined. Several methods to estimate energy requirements and the amount of total daily energy intake (kJ) related to health are also discussed. Reference values for energy intake in children, adults and pregnant and postpartum women, and older adults are evaluated. Results show that it is challenging to set reference values for energy intake since existing methods are not accurate and precise, and there are several factors that influence the estimated amount of energy. Energy requirement is increased during growth as in childhood, pregnancy and lactation. We conclude that more research in this area is needed, and that new high-quality studies in both Nordic and Baltic countries are needed to obtain new recommendation numbers for energy intake.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10233
JournalFood and Nutrition Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Lieselotte Cloetens and Lars Ellegård.

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Free keywords

  • Baltic
  • energy
  • energy balance
  • energy requirements
  • metabolic rate
  • Nordic
  • reference values


Dive into the research topics of 'Energy – a scoping review for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023 project'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this