Enterocytes of the small intestine (SI) play an important role in maintaining systemic lipid levels by regulating dietary lipid absorption and postprandial lipoprotein secretion. An excessive amount of dietary-derived triglycerides (TGs) taken up by the apical side of enterocytes or basolaterally internalized lipoprotein remnants can be transiently stored in cytosolic lipid droplets (cLDs). As mice lacking adipose TG lipase (ATGL) in the SI display massive accumulation of cLDs but also delayed cholesterol absorption, we hypothesized that SI-specific overexpression of ATGL (Atgl iTg) might have beneficial effects on lipid homeostasis in the gut and possibly throughout the body. Here, we demonstrate that Atgl iTg mice had only modestly increased enzymatic activity despite drastically elevated Atgl mRNA levels (up to 120-fold) on chow diet, and was highly induced upon high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HF/HCD) feeding. Atgl iTg mice showed markedly reduced intestinal TG concentrations after acute and chronic lipid challenge without affecting chylomicron TG secretion. Circulating plasma cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Atgl iTg mice under different feeding conditions, contrasting the accelerated uptake of dietary cholesterol into the circulation after HF/HCD feeding. In the fasted state, gene expression analysis revealed modulation of PPARα and liver X receptor (LXR) target genes by an increased fatty acid release, whereas the decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations in refed mice were more likely due to changes in HDL synthesis and secretion. We conclude that ATGL, in addition to its role in TG catabolism, plays a critical role in whole-body cholesterol homeostasis by modulating PPARα and LXR signaling in intestinal enterocytes.
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Apr|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.
- Liver X Receptors/metabolism
- PPAR alpha/metabolism