Epididymal and accessory sex gland function and semen quality

    Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis (compilation)

    Abstract

    Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected regular intercourse, affects up to 15% of all couples of reproductive age. The infertility can originate from female, male or both partners. In up to 50% of the affected couples, a male factor is the cause of infertility. Semen analysis is the cornerstone of male infertility assessment and an abnormal result often triggers a referral for a specialist opinion. It has been hypothesized that epididymal and accessory sex gland dysfunction are involved in pathophysiologies affecting male fertility. However, our knowledge within this area is still very limited. The aims of this study were, therefore, 1) To examine the association between the markers of epididymal (neutral ?-glucosidase [NAG]), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] and zinc), and seminal vesicles (fructose) function and the motility of spermatozoa; 2) To examine the association between the function of these organs and semen visco-elasticity, the length of sexual abstinence and the impact of these two factors on sperm motility in men under infertility assessment; 3) To assess the association between 5?-reductase type 2 gene (SD2R5A) polymorphisms and semen parameters in men from the general population; 4) Finally, to explore the association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) and epididymal and accessory sex gland function in a group of Swedish fishermen , fertile men from Greenland, Warsaw, (Poland) and Kharkiv, (Ukraine). Our study demonstrated a positive association between the epididymal marker NAG as well as the prostatic marker PSA and the motility of spermatozoa. Hyperfunction of seminal vesicles was associated with high visco-elasticity and lower proportion of motile spermatozoa. Compared to men delivering semen samples after 4?5 days, those having 2?3 days abstinence presented with lower NAG, zinc and proportion of motile sperm whereas those who delivered samples after 6?7 days exhibited higher percentage spermatozoa with tail defects and lower percentage motile sperm. SD2R5A polymorphism analysis showed, that subjects with the AT genotype had significantly higher sperm concentration compared to those having the AA genotype. Men bearing the V allele showed higher proportion of motile sperms compared to those being homozygotes for the L allele. We demonstrated a negative impact of POPs on the epididymal function, which might help us to understand the previously reported negative impact of POPs on sperm motility. Epididymis and accessory sex glands are potential targets for infertility assessment, therapy and for male contraception. Therefore, an insight into the function of these organs may help us to understand the mechanism behind male infertility and may lead to the development of new therapeutic and contraceptive modalities.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor
    Awarding Institution
    • Section V
    Supervisors/Advisors
    • Giwercman, Aleksander, Supervisor
    • Malm, Johan, Supervisor
    Award date2005 Nov 25
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs91-85481-00-9
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

    Bibliographical note

    Defence details

    Date: 2005-11-25
    Time: 13:00
    Place: Malmö University Hospital Entrance 59

    External reviewer(s)

    Name: Weidner, Wolfgang
    Title: Professor
    Affiliation: Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

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    <div class="article_info">Saad Elzanaty, Jonas Richthoff, Johan Malm and Aleksander Giwercman. <span class="article_issue_date">2002</span>. <span class="article_title">The impact of epididymal and accessory sex gland function on sperm motility.</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Hum Reprod</span>, <span class="journal_volume">vol 17</span> <span class="journal_pages">pp 2904-2911</span>.</div>
    <div class="article_info">Saad Elzanaty, Johan Malm and Aleksander Giwercman. <span class="article_issue_date">2005</span>. <span class="article_title">Visco-elasticity of seminal fluid in relation to the epididymal and accessory sex gland function and its impact on sperm motility.</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Int J Androl</span>, <span class="journal_volume">vol 27</span> <span class="journal_pages">pp 94-100</span>.</div>
    <div class="article_info">Saad Elzanaty, Johan Malm and Aleksander Giwercman. <span class="article_issue_date">2005</span>. <span class="article_title">Duration of sexual abstinence: epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions and their relationship to sperm motility.</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Hum Reprod</span>, <span class="journal_volume">vol 20</span> <span class="journal_pages">pp 221-225</span>.</div>
    <div class="article_info">Saad Elzanaty, Yvonne Giwercman Lundberg and Aleksander Giwercman. <span class="article_issue_date">2005</span>. <span class="article_title">Significant impact of 5 ?-reductase type 2 genetic polymorphisms on sperm concentration and motility.</span> <span class="journal_series_title">Int J androl</span>, (inpress)</div>
    <div class="article_info">Saad Elzanaty, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, Bo Jönsson, S Henning Pedersen, K Jan Ludwicki, Maryna Shevets, Valentyna Zvyezday, Gunnar Toft, Peter Jens Bonde, Lars Rylander, Lars Hagmar, Eva Bondefeld-Jorgensen, Marcello Spana, Davide Bizarro, Gian-Carlo Manicardi, Aleksander Giwercman and INUENDO. <span class="article_issue_date"></span>. <span class="article_title">Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: multicentre study in Inuit and European populations</span> (submitted)</div>

    Subject classification (UKÄ)

    • Clinical Medicine

    Keywords

    • Medicin (människa och djur)
    • Medicine (human and vertebrates)
    • zinc
    • visco-elasticity
    • sperm motility
    • SDR5A2
    • PSA
    • persistent organohalogen pollutants
    • NAG
    • fructose
    • Epididymis
    • CASA
    • acessory sex gland
    • abstinence period

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