Estimation of 3D rotation of femur in 2D hip radiographs

Sami P. Vaananen, Hanna Isaksson, Jan H. Waarsing, Amir Abbas Zadpoor, Jukka S. Jurvelin, Harrie Weinans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Femoral radiographs are affected by the degree of rotation of the femur with respect to the plane of projection. We aimed to determine the 3D rotation of the proximal femur in 2D radiographs. A 3D Statistical Appearance Model (SAM), which was built from CT images of cadaver proximal femurs (n = 33) was randomly sampled to form a training set of 500 bones. Nineteen clinical CT images were collected for testing. All CT images were rotated to +/- 20 degrees in 2 degrees division around the shaft axis, +/- 10 degrees around medial-lateral axis, and by simultaneous rotation of both axes (+/- 16 degrees and +/- 8 degrees around shaft and medial-lateral axes). In each orientation, a 2D projection was recorded for generating a 2D SAM. The outcome parameters of the 2D SAM were used as input for a linear regression model and an artificial neural network to predict the rotation. The artificial neural network estimated the rotation more accurately than the linear regression. For artificial neural networks the mean errors were 4.0 degrees and 2.0 degrees around the shaft and medial-lateral axes, respectively. For an individual radiograph, the confidence interval of estimation was still relatively large. However, this method has high potential to differentiate the amount of rotations in two image sets. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2279-2283
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Orthopedics

Free keywords

  • Rotation of femur
  • X-ray
  • Statistical appearance model
  • Artificial
  • neural networks


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