Explicit multipole formulas for calculating thermal resistance of single u-tube ground heat exchangers

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15 Citations (SciVal)


Borehole thermal resistance is both an important design parameter and a key performance characteristic of a ground heat exchanger. Another quantity that is particularly important for ground heat exchangers is the internal thermal resistance between the heat exchanger pipes. Both these resistances can be calculated to a high degree of accuracy by means of the well-known multipole method. However, the multipole method has a fairly intricate mathematical algorithm and is thus not trivial to implement. Consequently, there is considerable interest in developing explicit formulas for calculating borehole resistances. This paper presents derivation and solutions of newly derived second-order and higher-order multipole formulas for calculating borehole thermal resistance and total internal thermal resistance of single U-tube ground heat exchangers. A new and simple form of the first-order multipole formula is also presented. The accuracy of the presented formulas is established by comparing them to the original multipole method. The superiority of the new higher-order multipole formulas over the existing formulas is also demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberen11010214
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Energy Engineering


  • Borehole thermal resistance
  • Boreholes
  • Calculation
  • Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems
  • Internal thermal resistance
  • Multipole method
  • Second-order
  • Third-order


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