The purpose of this paper is to explore how witnessing workplace incivility from coworkers and supervisors relates to instigating incivility toward others. A further aim was to investigate if witnessed incivility is indirectly related to instigated incivility via perceived stress and low job satisfaction. An additional aim was to study if control, social support and job embeddedness moderate the relationships between witnessed and instigated incivility.
A total of 978 individuals, sourced from a Swedish trade union, completed an online questionnaire.
The results showed that witnessed incivility, mainly from coworkers but also from supervisors, was related to instigated incivility. Although witnessed incivility was related to both perceived stress and low job satisfaction, witnessed incivility was not linked to instigated incivility via perceived stress or low job satisfaction. In addition, the results showed that participants who had witnessed coworker incivility and at the same time perceived high levels of control, social support (from coworkers) or job embeddedness on average reported higher levels of instigated incivility. Similarly, participants who had witnessed supervisor incivility and at the same time perceived high levels of control, social support (from coworkers and supervisors) or job embeddedness on average reported higher levels of instigated incivility.
The findings expand the literature on bystander workplace incivility and highlight the importance of including experienced psychosocial work factors in models of incivility.
- Job embeddedness
- Workplace incivility
- COPSOQ II
- Instigated incivility