Exposome-wide ranking of modifiable risk factors for cardiometabolic disease traits

Alaitz Poveda, Hugo Pomares-Millan, Yan Chen, Azra Kurbasic, Chirag J. Patel, Frida Renström, Göran Hallmans, Ingegerd Johansson, Paul W. Franks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study assessed the temporal associations of ~ 300 lifestyle exposures with nine cardiometabolic traits to identify exposures/exposure groups that might inform lifestyle interventions for the reduction of cardiometabolic disease risk. The analyses were undertaken in a longitudinal sample comprising > 31,000 adults living in northern Sweden. Linear mixed models were used to assess the average associations of lifestyle exposures and linear regression models were used to test associations with 10-year change in the cardiometabolic traits. ‘Physical activity’ and ‘General Health’ were the exposure categories containing the highest number of ‘tentative signals’ in analyses assessing the average association of lifestyle variables, while ‘Tobacco use’ was the top category for the 10-year change association analyses. Eleven modifiable variables showed a consistent average association among the majority of cardiometabolic traits. These variables belonged to the domains: (i) Smoking, (ii) Beverage (filtered coffee), (iii) physical activity, (iv) alcohol intake, and (v) specific variables related to Nordic lifestyle (hunting/fishing during leisure time and boiled coffee consumption). We used an agnostic, data-driven approach to assess a wide range of established and novel risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. Our findings highlight key variables, along with their respective effect estimates, that might be prioritised for subsequent prediction models and lifestyle interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4088
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology


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