Factors influencing stone-free rate of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL); a cohort study

Magnus Wagenius, Karl Oddason, Maria Utter, Marcin Popiolek, Andreas Forsvall, Karl Johan Lundström, Adam Linder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate the success rate of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) therapy and identify relevant treatment-specific factors affecting stone-free rate (SFR) after ESWL. Materials and methods: All ESWL treatments in the years 2016–2019, in Ängelholm Hospital, Skåne, Sweden were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was stone-free rate (SFR) at 3 months. Univariate logistic regression was used followed by multivariable regression. Lasso analysis was made to adjust for treatment-specific factors such as age, stone size, skin-to-stone distance (SSD), stone attenuation, number of treatments, stone location and presence of a urinary stent. Results: Factors affecting successful ESWL treatment were lower age (p < 0.001), smaller stone size and volume (both p = 0.001). SSD, stone attenuation, sex, laterality and drainage did not have an effect on SFR in this study. After the first ESWL treatment session, 46.7% of the patients were stone-free. Conclusion: Results indicate that stone size and age are the most predictive factors for ESWL outcome. Based on this, we present a simple model for prediction of SFR after ESWL, to be used when counseling patients before ESWL treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-243
JournalScandinavian Journal of Urology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Urology and Nephrology

Free keywords

  • Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
  • infection
  • monotherapy
  • outcome
  • stone free rate
  • ureteric stone
  • ureteroscopy


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