In this letter we derive fundamental limitations on the levels of H {2} and H {\infty {}} performance that can be achieved when controlling lossless systems. The results are applied to the swing equation power system model, where it is shown that the fundamental limit on the H {2} norm scales with the inverse of the harmonic mean of the inertias in the system. This indicates that power systems may see a degradation in performance as more renewables are integrated, further motivating the need for new control solutions to aid the energy transition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-162
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Control Systems Letters
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Energy Systems
  • Control Engineering

Free keywords

  • Optimal control
  • power systems


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