The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. METHOD: Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. RESULTS: The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. CONCLUSION: Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.
|Publication status||Published - 2008|
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Medical Ethics
- Genetically Modified: adverse effects
- Biotechnology: ethics
- Biotechnology: legislation & jurisprudence
- Genetically Modified: economics