OBJECTIVE - This study was designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of a large type 1 diabetic population and to evaluate the degree of fulfillment of recently updated treatment goals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The Swedish National Diabetes Register was initiated in 1996 as a tool for quality assurance in diabetes care. A1C levels, treatment, and risk factors were analyzed in two cross-sectional samples of 9,424 patients in 1997 and 13,612 patients in 2004 and in a smaller longitudinal sample from 1997 to 2004. RESULTS - Mean A1C decreased from 8.2 +/- 1.3% in 1997 to 8.0 +/- 1.2% in 2004 (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients reaching A1C < 7.0% increased from 17.4 to 21.2% in 2004. A slow but significant improvement in blood pressure levels was seen, but only 61.3% reached the blood pressure goal of < 130/80 mmHg in 2004. Lipid control improved, and the use of lipid-lowering drugs increased. Among patients treated with lipid-lowering agents, 38% reached the goal of total cholesterol < 4.5 mmol/l, and 48% reached the goal of LDL cholesterol < 2.5 mmol/l. Successful long-term glycemic, and blood pressure control were both independently predicted by low BMI and the absence of microalbuminuria in 1997. CONCLUSIONS - In this large cohort of type 1 diabetic patients, there was a slow improvement in glycemic and risk factor control from 1997 to 2004, although the gap between the clinical results and current Swedish and American treatment goals is still unsatisfactory. It is crucial that additional measures be taken to improve risk factor control in type 1 diabetic patients.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Endocrinology and Diabetes