Hemodynamic force analysis has been proposed as a novel tool for early detection of subclinical systolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Here we investigated the ability of hemodynamic forces to discriminate between healthy subjects and heart failure patients with varying degrees of systolic dysfunction. We studied 34 controls, 16 HFpEF patients, and 25 heart failure patients with mid-range (HFmrEF) or reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) using cardiac magnetic resonance with acquisition of cine images and 4D flow at 1.5 T. The Navier-Stokes equation was used to compute global left ventricular hemodynamic forces over the entire cardiac cycle. Forces were analyzed for systole, diastole, and the entire heartbeat, with and without normalization to left ventricular volume. Volume-normalized hemodynamic forces demonstrated significant positive correlation with EF (r2 = 0.47, p < 0.0001) and were found significantly lower in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction compared to controls (p < 0.0001 for systole and diastole). No difference was seen between controls and HFpEF (p > 0.34). Non-normalized forces displayed no differences between controls and HFpEF (p > 0.24 for all analyses) and did not correlate with EF (p = 0.36). Left ventricular hemodynamic force analysis, whether indexed to LV volumes or not, is not ready for clinical trials on HFpEF assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4017
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 7

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems


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