Heterogeneity of beta-cell function in subjects with multiple islet autoantibodies in the TEDDY family prevention study - TEFA

The TEDDY Family (TEFA) Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple islet autoantibodies are at increased risk for clinical type 1 diabetes and may proceed gradually from stage to stage complicating the recruitment to secondary prevention studies. We evaluated multiple islet autoantibody positive subjects before randomisation for a clinical trial 1 month apart for beta-cell function, glucose metabolism and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). We hypothesized that the number and type of islet autoantibodies in combination with different measures of glucose metabolism including fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intra venous glucose tolerance test (IvGTT) and CGM allows for more precise staging of autoimmune type 1 diabetes than the number of islet autoantibodies alone.

METHODS: Subjects (n = 57) at 2-50 years of age, positive for two or more islet autoantibodies were assessed by fasting plasma insulin, glucose, HbA1c as well as First Phase Insulin Response (FPIR) in IvGTT, followed 1 month later by OGTT, and 1 week of CGM (n = 24).

RESULTS: Autoantibodies against GAD65 (GADA; n = 52), ZnT8 (ZnT8A; n = 40), IA-2 (IA-2A; n = 38) and insulin (IAA; n = 28) were present in 9 different combinations of 2-4 autoantibodies. Fasting glucose and HbA1c did not differ between the two visits. The estimate of the linear relationship between log2-transformed FPIR as the outcome and log2-transformed area under the OGTT glucose curve (AUC) as the predictor, adjusting for age and sex was - 1.88 (- 2.71, - 1.05) p = 3.49 × 10-5. The direction of the estimates for all glucose metabolism measures was positive except for FPIR, which was negative. FPIR was associated with higher blood glucose. Both the median and the spread of the CGM glucose data were significantly associated with higher glucose values based on OGTT, higher HbA1c, and lower FPIR. There was no association between glucose metabolism, autoantibody number and type except that there was an indication that the presence of at least one of ZnT8(Q/R/W) A was associated with a lower log2-transformed FPIR (- 0.80 (- 1.58, - 0.02), p = 0.046).

CONCLUSIONS: The sole use of two or more islet autoantibodies as inclusion criterion for Stage 1 diabetes in prevention trials is unsatisfactory. Staging type 1 diabetes needs to take the heterogeneity in beta-cell function and glucose metabolism into account.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02605148 , November 16, 2015.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalClinical diabetes and endocrinology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 5

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


Dive into the research topics of 'Heterogeneity of beta-cell function in subjects with multiple islet autoantibodies in the TEDDY family prevention study - TEFA'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this