High hyperdiploidy (51-67 chromosomes) is the most common cytogenetic abnormality pattern in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), occurring in 25-30% of such cases. High hyperdiploid ALL is characterized cytogenetically by a nonrandom gain of chromosomes X, 4, 6, 10, 14, 17, 18, and 21 and clinically by a favorable prognosis. Despite the high frequency of this karyotypic subgroup, many questions remain regarding the epidemiology, etiology, presence of other genetic changes, the time and cell of origin, and the formation and pathogenetic consequences of high hyperdiploidy. However, during the last few years, several studies have addressed some of these important issues, and these, as well as previous reports on high hyperdiploid childhood ALL, are reviewed herein. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Subject classification (UKÄ)
- Medical Genetics