HLA class I genes modulate disease risk and age at onset together with DR-DQ in Chinese patients with insulin-requiring type 1 diabetes

Ziyu Jiang, Wenqian Ren, Hua Liang, Jinhua Yan, Daizhi Yang, Sihui Luo, Xueying Zheng, Guo Wang Lin, Yingxin Xian, Wen Xu, Bin Yao, Janelle A. Noble, Jin Xin Bei, Leif Groop, Jianping Weng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: The study aimed to investigate the effects of HLA class I genes on susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, in addition to the well-established effects of HLA class II genes. Methods: A total of 361 patients with type 1 diabetes (192 patients with onset <18 years and 169 patients with onset ≥18 years) and 500 healthy control participants from China were enrolled and genotyped for the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1 and -DRB1 genes using next-generation sequencing. Results: The susceptible DR3 (β = −0.09, p = 0.0009) and DR4-DQ8 (β = −0.13, p = 0.0059) haplotypes were negatively associated with onset age, while the protective DR11 (β = 0.21, p = 0.0314) and DR12 (β = 0.27, p < 0.0001) haplotypes were positively associated with onset age. After adjustment for linkage disequilibrium with DR-DQ haplotypes, A*11:01:01 was positively associated with onset age (β = 0.06, p = 0.0370), while the susceptible C*15:02:01 was negatively associated with onset age (β = −0.21, p = 0.0050). The unit for β was double square-root (fourth root) transformed years of change in onset age associated with per copy of the HLA haplotype/allele. In addition, B*46:01:01 was protective (OR 0.41, 0.46; pc [corrected for multiple comparisons] = 0.0044, 0.0040), whereas A*24:02:01 (OR 2.71, 2.25; pc = 0.0003, 0.0002) and B*54:01:01 (OR 3.96, 3.79; pc = 0.0018, 0.0004) were predisposing in both the <18 group and the ≥18 group compared with healthy control participants. In the context of DR4-DQ4, A*11:01:01 (61.29% vs 28.26%, pc = 0.0144) was increased while the predisposing A*24:02:01 (19.35% vs 47.83%, pc = 0.0403) was decreased in patients with onset ≥18 years when compared with patients with onset <18 years. Conclusions/interpretation: In addition to DR-DQ haplotypes, novel HLA class I alleles were detected to play a role in susceptibility to type 1 diabetes with different onset ages, which could improve the understanding of disease heterogeneity and has implications for the design of future studies. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2026-2036
JournalDiabetologia
Volume64
Issue number9
Early online date2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Endocrinology and Diabetes

Free keywords

  • Basic science
  • Genetics of type 1 diabetes
  • Human

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