How design process for the Base of the Pyramid differs from that for the Top of the Pyramid

Santosh Jagtap, Andreas Larsson, Viktor Hiort, Elin Olander, Anders Warell, Pramod Khadilkar

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34 Citations (SciVal)
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The base (BOP) and the top (TOP) of the world income pyramid represent the poor people and the people from developed countries, respectively. The design of products for the BOP is an important ingredient of the poverty reduction approach that combines business development with poverty alleviation. However, the current understanding of the design for the BOP is limited. This study, using a protocol analysis, compared design processes for the BOP and TOP markets. The results indicate the difference between the design processes for these markets in terms of the design strategy employed by the designers (i.e. problem driven, solution driven strategy), their requirements handling behaviour, and their information behaviour. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)527-558
JournalDesign Studies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics


  • Base of the Pyramid
  • design process
  • design activity
  • design behaviour
  • protocol analysis


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