Imaging biomarkers in animal models of drug-induced lung injury: A systematic review

Irma Mahmutovic Persson, Karin von Wachenfeldt, John C. Waterton, Lars E. Olsson, TRISTAN Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


For drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DIILD) translational imaging biomarkers are needed to improve detection and management of lung injury and drug-toxicity. Literature was reviewed on animal models in which in vivo imaging was used to detect and assess lung lesions that resembled pathological changes found in DIILD, such as inflammation and fibrosis. A systematic search was carried out using three databases with key words “Animal models”, “Imaging”, “Lung disease”, and “Drugs”. A total of 5749 articles were found, and, based on inclusion criteria, 284 papers were selected for final data extraction, resulting in 182 out of the 284 papers, based on eligibility. Twelve different animal species occurred and nine various imaging modalities were used, with two-thirds of the studies being longitudinal. The inducing agents and exposure (dose and duration) differed from non-physiological to clinically relevant doses. The majority of studies reported other biomarkers and/or histological confirmation of the imaging results. Summary of radiotracers and examples of imaging biomarkers were summarized, and the types of animal models and the most used imaging modalities and applications are discussed in this review. Pathologies resembling DIILD, such as inflammation and fibrosis, were described in many papers, but only a few explicitly addressed drug-induced toxicity experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107
Pages (from-to)1-30
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 1

Subject classification (UKÄ)

  • Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
  • Anesthesiology and Intensive Care

Free keywords

  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Drug toxicity
  • Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DIILD)
  • Fibrosis
  • Imaging biomarkers
  • Inflammation
  • Lung imaging
  • Lung injury models
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Vascular leak


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